• 1 Albert Carman

    A commanding figure in Canadian Methodism during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Carman was born an Iroquois and educated at Victoria College, Cobourg. He worked briefly as a teacher and was then appointed principal of the Belleville Seminary, later Albert College, in 1858. A masterful administrator and, after entering the Methodist Episcopal ministry, a militant advocate for Methodist education, Carman spearheaded the successful development of this Methodist school during his 17-year term. Following his election as a bishop in 1874, Carman gained increasing prominence in church affairs, particularly as an ardent supporter of union among the Methodist denominations. When union was achieved in 1884, Carman became a General Superintendent of the Methodist Church, a post he held until his retirement in 1914.

  • 2 Alexander Ferrie Kemp

    Alexander Ferrie Kemp (1822-84) was born in Strathclyde, Scotland; he became a Presbyterian clergyman and educator in Canada. Kemp attended the University of Edinburgh and Presbyterian College in London, England and was ordained in 1850 by the Free Church of the Presbytery of Lancashire. Kemp was appointed as chaplain to the 26th Foot Regiment (Cameronians or Scottish Rifles) stationed in Bermuda. In 1855, Kemp accepted a position at the St. Gabriel Street Church in Montreal, and as the clerk of the Presbytery of Montreal. He left Montreal in 1865 to serve at St. Andrew’s Church in Windsor, Canada West (Ontario). He was a noted scholar, an editor of the Canadian Presbyter newsletter, and published several articles on the botany of Bermuda, the United States and Canada. Criticized for his views on the lack of progress in the Canada Presbyterian Church since its formation in 1861, he resigned and began teaching at colleges throughout Canada and the United States. In 1878, he became principal of the Ottawa Ladies’ College and retired in 1883.

  • 3 Armand-François-Marie de Charbonnel

    Armand-François-Marie de Charbonnel (1802-91) was a Roman Catholic priest from France who became Bishop of Toronto in 1850. Charbonnel studied at the Séminaire de Saint Sulpice in Paris before he was ordained in 1825. He arrived in Montreal in 1839 as a missionary and was consecrated in 1850 as Bishop of Toronto in the Sistine Chapel by Pope Pius IX (1792-1878). As bishop, Charbonnel established St. Michael's College, the House of Providence shelter, instituted the St. Vincent de Paul Society and the Toronto Savings Bank. He laid the foundations for a separate Catholic school system with his support of the 1855 Taché Act. Charbonnel, however, felt disliked by his parishioners and clergy and petitioned Rome in 1856 to be relieved from his post. He left for France in 1860 to preach throughout the country, and was made titular Archbishop of Sozopolis (Sozopol, Bulgaria) in 1880 in recognition of his work in Toronto. Charbonnel died at a Capuchin friary in Crest, France in 1891.

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  • 4 Bishop Alexander Macdonell

    Alexander Macdonell, born in the Scottish Highlands, was a legislator and Roman Catholic priest and bishop. After being ordained a priest in 1787, Macdonell formed a Catholic Highlanders regiment and served in Guernsey and Ireland. The regiment was disbanded in 1802. Father Macdonell petitioned the home government for land grants for his disbanded regiment. In 1803, the veterans sailed for Upper Canada. Macdonell came to Upper Canada in 1804 as chaplain of this disbanded regiment. During the War of 1812, Father Macdonell was a driving force in reforming his regiment into the Glengarry Fencibles for the defence of their new home. The regiment saw much service during the war – with Father Macdonell as its chaplain – and was highly regarded as a fighting unit. Macdonell became the first Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kingston, formed in 1826. In 1831, he was appointed to the Legislative Council of Upper Canada. In 1837, he founded Regiopolis College in Kingston.

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  • 5 Bishop Benjamin Cronyn

    Born in Kilkenny, Ireland, Benjamin Cronyn (1802-71) emigrated to Upper Canada (Ontario) in 1832 as an Anglican missionary with the Society of the Propagation of the Gospel. Cronyn began preaching in London and the surrounding areas, and oversaw the construction of St. Paul’s Church in 1834. He was able to supplement his income by becoming chaplain at the nearby Royal London Military Institute, preaching to military troops and students. In 1857, Cronyn became the first Bishop of the Diocese of Huron, and was consecrated in London, England by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Cronyn established Huron University College in 1863 with Rev. Isaac Hellmuth (1819-1901), which became the founding college of the University of Western Ontario in London.

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  • 6 Bishop Benjamin Eby

    Born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Benjamin Eby (1785-1853) was a Mennonite preacher and leader of the settler community in Ebytown, Upper Canada (Ontario). Increased harassment of pacifist Mennonites in the United States following the American Revolution (1775-83) led Eby and a group of German-speaking Mennonite settlers to emigrate from Pennsylvania to Waterloo Township, Upper Canada in 1807. Ordained in 1809, Eby was a leader in the community and helped to erect a school and meeting house (called Ben Eby’s Church). In 1813, he was elected Bishop of Waterloo County. He oversaw religious conferences, mediated local settler disputes and elected new bishops in neighbouring districts. The settlement was named Ebytown, later renamed Berlin (Kitchener) in honour of the community’s German heritage. Eby actively promoted German-language education and religious services, publishing several primers, hymnals and texts in German.

  • 7 Bishop Charles James Stewart

    Charles James Stewart (1775-1837) was a clergyman of the Church of England and Bishop of Quebec. Ordained in 1798, Stewart travelled to Lower Canada (Quebec) in 1807 to take up his post as rector of Orton Longueville (Orton). He established Trinity Church in Frelighsburg in 1809, the first Anglican church in the Eastern Townships. He travelled to England in 1823 to defend the Anglican Church’s claims to the profits of the Clergy reserves, lands set aside by the colonial government for the benefit of the Church in Canada. In 1826, he was consecrated as the Bishop of Quebec at Lambeth Palace, London. Faced with decreasing funding for missions in Canada, Stewart petitioned the Church of England to continue providing salaries to clergy of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. His continuous appeals for funds to support missionaries throughout Canada led to the establishment of the Upper Canadian Travelling Missionary Fund in 1834, and the Upper Canada Clergy Society in England in 1835. After selecting George Jehoshaphat Mountain (1789-1863) as his successor, Stewart left for retirement in Scotland in 1837, but died in London en route.

  • 8 Bishop John Strachan

    Bishop John Strachan was an Anglican clergyman, legislator and teacher, born in Aberdeen, Scotland. In 1799, he came to Kingston in Upper Canada (now Ontario) to be a tutor. In 1803, he was ordained by the Church of England and appointed missionary at Cornwall where he built its first Anglican Church in 1804-05. Shortly after his arrival in Cornwall, he opened a boys' school that became renowned for its high academic standards and prominent graduates. In 1812, he became Rector of York (Toronto) and subsequently a member of the province's executive and legislative councils. In 1839, Strachan was appointed Upper Canada's first Anglican bishop.

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  • 9 Bishop Willis Nazrey

    Born in Virginia, Willis Nazrey was a minister, bishop in the American Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church and first bishop of the British Methodist Episcopal (BME) Church. He was admitted into the New York Conference of the AME Church in 1840, then appointed to the Lewistown Circuit in Pennsylvania. In 1852, he was elected Bishop of the AME Church. Soon afterward, he took up residence in Canada. Bishop Willis Nazrey led many AME congregations into a new Canadian-based BME Church. From 1856-75, Nazrey was bishop of the BME Church of Canada. The denomination was established by Underground Railroad refugees so that they could govern their own church from Canada. He continued to travel extensively until the autumn of 1875 when he died in Nova Scotia. His body was returned to Chatham where he was buried.

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  • 10 Elder Washington Christian

    Ordained in Abyssinia Baptist Church in New York, Washington Christian was a refugee slave from the southern United States. Through the 1820s and 1830s, he formed Black Baptist congregations in Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catharines and Niagara Falls. He founded the first Baptist church in Toronto in 1826.

  • 11 Enoch Wood

    Born in Gainsborough, Scotland, Enoch Wood (1802-88) was a Methodist minister and mission superintendent in Upper Canada (Ontario). Although he was baptized as an Anglican, Wood converted to Methodism and was accepted as a Wesleyan missionary to Canada in 1826. Wood served in several parishes throughout New Brunswick before he was appointed Superintendent of Missions of the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Canada in 1847. Wood continued as superintendent until 1874, when the Methodist Church of Canada was formed through the union of the two Wesleyan conferences of British North America and the Methodist New Connexion Church of Canada. Wood was also involved in the establishment of Victoria College in Cobourg, from which he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1860.

  • 12 Hannibal Mulkins

    Hannibal Mulkins (1812-77) was a Methodist preacher and Anglican clergyman in Upper Canada (Ontario). He was ordained by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Canada in 1838 and served congregations in Toronto Township, Whitby, Cobourg, Belleville and Brockville. In 1840, however, he joined the Church of England (Anglican) and was ordained as a priest in 1842. Mulkins was appointed a travelling missionary in Fitzroy and Pakenham (Mississippi Mills) and extended his territory to include the area west of Bytown (Ottawa) and the townships of Torbolton, McNab (McNab/Braeside) and Horton. In 1851, he was appointed by Lord Elgin (1811-1863) – Governor General of the Province of Canada – to the chaplaincy of the Provincial Penitentiary in Kingston. He produced detailed reports and statistical analyses of prisoners’ lives and the impact of the prison mission, despite contemporary reports that he frequently neglected his duties as chaplain. In 1871, Mulkins married Lavinia Mary Bromehead of Yorkshire, England. Due to his advancing age, Mulkins left the penitentiary in 1875 and emigrated to England where he became the vicar of Stapleford in Salisbury.

  • 13 Henry Esson

    Born in Balnacraig, Scotland, Henry Esson (1793-1853) became a Presbyterian minister and educator in Upper Canada (Ontario). Educated at Marischal College in Aberdeen, Esson was sent to Canada in 1817 in response to requests for a minister from the Scottish Presbyterian Church in Montreal. He actively supported educational projects and founded the Montreal Academical Institution in 1822, sat on the committee of the École Normale de Montreal and criticized efforts to make McGill College an exclusively Anglican institution. Esson’s first wife, Maria Sweeney, died in 1824; their two sons died in childhood. In 1844, he accepted an instructor position, teaching history, literature and philosophy at Knox College, recently established by the Free Church in Toronto. Esson continued teaching until his death in 1853. He was buried in Montreal’s Mount Royal Cemetery.

  • 14 Hugh T. Crossley

    A Methodist and revivalist, Hugh Thomas Crossley (1850-1934) was born in King Township, Canada West (Ontario). He was converted to Methodism at a camp meeting in 1867 and began working as a teacher and lay preacher in Toronto. Crossley studied theology at Victoria College in Cobourg, Ontario where he began preaching with John Edwin Hunter (1856-1919). Crossley was ordained in 1880 and served congregations in St. Catharines, Hamilton and Brantford. Hunter and Crossley became partners in 1883, and travelled across Canada and the United States as preachers. They were designated as Conference Evangelists by the Methodist Church in 1884, meaning they were free to preach on invitation, rather than settling with a single congregation. Hunter and Crossley were recognized as Canada’s leading evangelists and recorded over 110,000 “decisions for Christ,” or conversions to Methodism. In 1891, the Crossley Hunter Methodist Church was opened in South Dorchester Township (Elgin County), Ontario. Crossley continued to preach until his death in 1934.

  • 15 John Edwin Hunter

    A Methodist evangelist, John Edwin Hunter (1856-1919) was born near Bowmanville, Upper Canada (Ontario). He converted to Methodism in 1871 and began touring as a lay preacher in Woodslee and Thamesville. Hunter studied at Victoria College in Cobourg, and was ordained in 1882. He volunteered for service in western Canada and was appointed to Dominion City, Manitoba. Hunter became partners with a like-minded evangelist, Hugh Thomas Crossley (1850-1934), and the two travelled across Canada and the United States as preachers. Hunter and Crossley were designated as Conference Evangelists by the Methodist Church, meaning they were free to preach on invitation, rather than settling with a single congregation. They were recognized as Canada’s leading evangelists and recorded over 110,000 “decisions for Christ,” or conversions to Methodism. Among the pair’s converts was Sir John A. Macdonald (1815-91), Prime Minister of Canada.

  • 16 John Macher

    John Macher (1796-1863) was born in Forfarshire, Scotland, and became a Presbyterian clergyman, scholar and administrator in Upper Canada (Ontario). Ordained as a minister by the Church of Scotland in 1819, Macher assisted at parishes in Brechin and Logie while waiting for an assignment. In 1827, he was selected to join Rev. John Barclay (1795-1826) at the Presbyterian mission in Kingston, Upper Canada. Machar was one of 14 ministers of the Church of Scotland who established the Synod of the Presbyterian Church in Upper Canada at Kingston in 1831. A noted scholar, Macher helped found Queen’s College in Kingston and was actively involved in school affairs as a Trustee and educator. In 1846, he became principal of Queen’s College at a time when the future of the institution was uncertain, his staff was temporary and his salary infrequent. Machar retired in 1852, but continued to teach occasional Hebrew language courses at the college until his death in 1863.

  • 17 Jonathan Doan

    Jonathan Doan (1765-1847), a member of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), came to Upper Canada (Ontario) from Pennsylvania in 1789. Doan was one of many Quakers who emigrated to Canada to escape increasing taxation and harassment as a result of refusal to bear arms during the American Revolution (1775-83). He settled first in the Niagara peninsula at Sugar Loaf (Port Colborne), and then purchased 200 acres in Yarmouth Township in 1813. A few years later, Doan became a land agent for judge and politician Jacques Bâby (1763-1833). Doan acquired 3,000 acres for settlement and revisited Pennsylvania to recruit fellow Quakers. A community known as the Quaker Settlement or Yarmouth Corners developed around Doan's farm, gristmill and tannery. In 1820, he donated the land for a meeting house and burying ground. The community founded by Doan and the Friends became Sparta, Ontario, in 1832.

  • 18 Laura Haviland

    Born in Kitley Township, Upper Canada (Ontario), Laura Smith Haviland was a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) abolitionist who helped transport slaves from the United States to Canada. Her Quaker family emigrated to Cambria, New York in 1815, where she met and married her husband Charles Haviland, Jr. The couple moved to Raisin Township, Michigan, where she founded the first racially integrated school in Michigan – the Raisin Institute. At the same time, the Haviland home became the first Underground Railroad station in Michigan. She made trips to the South to escort escaped slaves to freedom and had a bounty of $3,000 set for her capture by several slave owners. In 1849, she helped establish the Refugee Home Society in Puce, Canada West (Ontario), with a church and school for fugitive slaves. During the American Civil War (1861-65), Haviland toured the country to deliver supplies to troops, work as a teacher and nurse and petition for the release of imprisoned slaves.

  • 19 Macarios Nasr

    Born in Zahleh, Lebanon, Macarios Nasr (1831-1908) was the first Melkite priest in Toronto. He helped establish the Syrian Catholic community in the city. In Syria, Nasr entered the Eastern Christian Melkite monastic order of St. Basil of the Holy Saviour and was ordained as a priest in 1861. While serving in Damascus, he was appointed an apostolic missionary to the Melkites in Toronto and western Ontario. The Melkite community in Toronto was established by Syrian and Lebanese immigrants in the late 19th century. Upon his arrival in Toronto in 1897, Nasr preached in St. Patrick’s Roman Catholic Church until he secured the use of St. Vincent de Paul Hall for Melkite services. The hall became the centre of activity as the Melkite community in Toronto continued to grow. Nasr died in 1908 before the completion of the Toronto Melkite Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which opened in 1913.

  • 20 Nathanael Burwash

    Nathanael Burwash (1839-1918) was a Methodist minister and president of Victoria College, born in St. Andrews, Lower Canada (Saint-André-Est, Quebec). He received a license to preach in Cobourg, and was ordained in East Toronto in 1866. That same year, Burwash began teaching science at Victoria College in Cobourg and, in 1873, became Dean of the Faculty of Theology. In 1884, after Victoria College merged with Albert College of Belleville, Burwash became president of the newly formed Victoria University. Though opposed by many in the Methodist Church, Burwash supported the merger of Victoria (among other colleges) with the University of Toronto as a means of separating theological and scientific studies between denominational colleges and the government-funded university. In 1892, Victoria became a federated school of the University of Toronto and moved to the city, where Burwash remained as president and chancellor. Though he retired in 1913, Burwash continued to teach at Victoria and attend Methodist conferences abroad before his death in 1918.

  • 21 Patrick Boyle

    Born in County Mayo in the Republic of Ireland, publisher Patrick Boyle (1832-1901) emigrated with his family to Toronto in 1846. An advocate for Irish Home Rule and removal of the British colonial authority in Ireland, Boyle began publishing the Irish Canadian in 1863. The newspaper became the tool of the Hibernian Benevolent Society of Canada, a working-class Irish Catholic association. Boyle and the Hibernian Society were criticized by moderate Irish Catholics in Canada for their alleged ties to extremist Fenian associations in America. He became president of the Hibernian Society in 1866, and in 1867 began to align Irish nationalist policies with the politics of Canada, using the Irish Canadian as his forum. Boyle criticized government policies that he felt impoverished or disadvantaged Irish Catholics in Canada, and soon gained funding support from Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald (1815-91) and the Conservative Party. The Irish Canadian merged with the rival Catholic Weekly Review in 1893. Boyle continued to advocate for Irish Catholic rights in Canada until his death in 1901.

  • 22 Peter Lossing

    Born in New York City, Peter Lossing (1761-1833) was a member of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) who established a settlement at Norwich, Upper Canada (Ontario). Lossing moved to Upper Canada with the hopes of founding an agricultural settlement. In June 1810, Lossing and his brother-in-law Peter Delong purchased 15,000 acres in Norwich Township. The Lossings and at least nine other families were settled in the tract by the end of 1811. Many of the newcomers were Quakers from Dutchess County. Prior to the construction of a frame meeting house at Norwich in 1817, Quaker services were held in Lossing’s home. The Quakers built two schools before 1816; the first post office was set up at Lossing’s house in 1830. He was instrumental in the establishment of a mill and ironworks in Norwich. He also assisted leasing smaller lots to poorer settlers. Lossing actively encouraged the growth and expansion of the community until his death in 1833.

  • 23 Ralph Cecil Horner

    Ralph Cecil Horner (1853-1921) was born near Shawville, Lower Canada (Quebec). He converted to Methodism in 1876. Horner became a lay preacher with the Methodist Church of Canada in 1882. After studying theology at Victoria College in Cobourg, he was ordained by the Methodist Church in Montreal in 1887. Though his sermons were successful in securing Methodist converts, church authorities disagreed with Horner’s energetic and unorthodox preaching style. Criticizing institutional Methodism, Horner incorporated Wesleyan doctrine into his sermons and formed the Holiness Movement Church in 1897 as a Canadian offshoot of the Wesleyan Methodist Connection in America. The Movement spread across Ontario and Horner opened a publishing house and seminary in his Ottawa home. Because of conflict between Horner and other ministers in the Holiness Movement, he left the Church in 1916 and formed the Standard Church of America. Despite his advancing age, Horner continued to preach. In 1921, he died at a camp meeting he was conducting near Belleville.

  • 24 Rev. Adolphus Egerton Ryerson

    Rev. Adolphus Egerton Ryerson (1803-82) was an education reformer, author and clergyman born near Vittoria, Upper Canada (Ontario). After Ryerson recovered from a prolonged illness in 1825, he became a Methodist minister. He visited parishes throughout York (Toronto) and became a missionary to the Mississauga First Nations along the Credit River. In 1835, Ryerson was instrumental in obtaining a charter for the Upper Canada Academy at Cobourg, and later became the institution’s first principal when the academy was raised to the status of a university (later renamed Victoria College). In 1844, Ryerson was nominated to take charge of the school system of Upper Canada. As head of the Department of Public Instruction, he established the basis of Ontario’s present system of secular public education, building on the non-denominational school system already established by the Upper Canada Schools Act of 1850. Ryerson instituted a single educational system that embraced curriculum, inspection, Canadian-made textbooks, teacher training and certification of the province’s schools. After his retirement in 1876, Ryerson focused on writing several monographs. He died in Toronto in February 1882.

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  • 25 Rev. Charles Alfred Marie Paradis

    Born in Kamouraska County, Quebec, Paradis studied at Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pocatière College and taught art in Ottawa. Following his ordination as a Roman Catholic priest in 1881, Paradis was posted to Lake Timiskaming as missionary of the Oblate Congregation. Paradis' travels as a missionary provided the information for his pamphlet, From Temiskaming to Hudson Bay. In it, he strongly recommended the colonization of the region. After leaving the congregation in 1890, he encouraged many French-Canadian farm families from Michigan to settle in the region of Verner and even took up farming himself. He prospected for gold at Nighthawk Lake where he wrote, painted in watercolour and worked on the compilation of an Ojibwa dictionary.

  • 26 Rev. Clarence Leslie Morton

    Born near Chatham, Ontario, Clarence Leslie Morton, Sr. (1897-1962) was a Protestant preacher active in the establishment of the Pentecostal Church in Windsor. After his service as a missionary in West Virginia with the Church of God in Christ (an African American Holiness-Pentecostal denomination), Morton moved to Windsor, Ontario and established a Pentecostal congregation. Beginning in 1936, he actively promoted the Pentecostal movement via a weekly radio program on CKLW AM 800 in Windsor that lasted 42 years. Morton founded several churches in Windsor, Chatham, Buxton, Harrow and Amherstburg, including Mount Zion Full Gospel Church in Windsor in 1939.

  • 27 Rev. Dominick Edward Blake

    Born at Kiltegan in the Republic of Ireland, Dominick Edward Blake (1806-59) was a Church of England clergyman who emigrated to Canada in 1832. He was quickly appointed to Caradoc Township in Middlesex County, Upper Canada (Ontario). In 1833, Blake and his family relocated to Adelaide (Adelaide-Metcalfe), where he served as clergyman to neighbouring communities and at St. Ann’s Anglican Church. Blake had two sons with his wife Louisa Jones – Dominick Edward and John Netterville. In order to supplement his income after the Church of England discontinued its funding of the colonial missions, Blake kept diaries of his activities to be published in journals of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. In 1844, Blake was appointed superintendent of common schools for Adelaide Township, but soon left to serve at Trinity Church in Thornhill. He was actively involved in the administration of the church and the establishment of the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada. In 1859, Rev. Blake collapsed and died suddenly after speaking at Trinity College in Toronto.

  • 28 Rev. George Buchanan

    Born in Scotland, George Buchanan graduated in medicine from Edinburgh University. He later became a Presbyterian minister and was called to Upper Canada (now Ontario). In 1822, he arrived in Beckwith Township – a largely Presbyterian Scottish settlement that was ministered by Rev. William Bell from Perth. Buchanan became Beckwith’s first resident minister, teacher and physician. In 1833, a stone church was completed and the congregation informed Buchanan that he would be allowed to preach in it only if he joined the Church of Scotland. The demand reflected the bitterness existing between the Church of Scotland and the Secession Church, which had split. Buchanan, a secessionist, refused and was consequently barred from preaching. From then until his death, Buchanan held services in his home for those of the congregation who supported his views.

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  • 29 Rev. Henry Pahtahquahong Chase

    Born near Belleville, Upper Canada (Ontario), Henry Pahtahquahong Chase (1818-1900) was a Methodist minister, Anglican priest and Ojibwa interpreter. Known in childhood as Pahtahquahong, Chase was raised by William Case (1780-1855), Superintendent of the Methodist missions in First Nations communities throughout Canada. Chase served as an Ojibwa interpreter for several Methodist missionaries in Upper Canada and the United States, and in 1843 became an interpreter for the Indian Department at Port Sarnia (Sarnia). He married Annie G. Armour of Scotland in 1852, with whom he had four children. In 1856, Chase became a Methodist preacher at the Lake St. Clair and Muncey (Strathroy-Caradoc) missions. Chase became an Anglican priest in 1864, and began preaching in Delaware, Oneida and Ojibwa reserves near Muncey. Chase was present at the Council of the Six Nations and different bands in Ontario and Quebec in 1870, and was selected to meet with Governor General Sir John Young (1807-76) to discuss the rights and roles of the First Nations in Canadian government.

  • 30 Rev. Henry Scadding

    Born in Devonshire, England, Henry Scadding (1813-1901) was a scholar, author and Anglican minister in Toronto. Scadding emigrated to Canada in 1821 after his father arrived in 1792 to work as a clerk for Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe (1752-1806). Educated at Cambridge University, Scadding was ordained in 1838 as an Anglican priest at Toronto’s St. James Church. In 1847, he was appointed first rector of the Church of the Holy Trinity, where he served until 1875. A founder of the Royal Canadian Institute, he served as librarian for the institution from 1862 to 1870, and as president from 1870 to 1876. Scadding was a noted scholar, writing religious, literary and historical works, including Toronto of Old (1873) and Toronto: Past and Present (1884). Scadding became president of the York Pioneer and Historical Society, and encouraged the organization of several local historical societies. Rev. Henry Scadding died in Toronto on May 6, 1901 and was buried in St. James' Cemetery.

  • 31 Rev. James Magrath

    Rev. James Magrath (1769-1851) was born in Ireland and educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Hoping to establish his sons in a prosperous land while serving the Anglican Church, he applied to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel for a colonial missionary post. In May 1827, Magrath arrived at Quebec with his family and was promised a mission in Upper Canada (Ontario). He was appointed to the Toronto Mission on the Credit River, where he served at St. Peter's Church. Magrath acquired land in this area and built his home, which he named Erindale. While carrying out his duties, he also encouraged his sons to become successful; James Magrath was a merchant and postmaster, William managed the family farm and Charles studied law. Rev. Magrath served the parish until his death in 1851. After 1890, the surrounding village of Springfield was renamed Erindale in his honour.

  • 32 Rev. Johann Samuel Schwerdtfeger

    The first Lutheran minister to settle in Upper Canada (Ontario), Johann Samuel Schwerdtfeger (1734-1803) was born in Burgbernheim, Bavaria and studied theology at the University of Erlangen. He emigrated to America in 1753 and served as pastor of congregations in Pennsylvania, Maryland and New York. Persecuted for his allegiance to the Crown during the American Revolution (1775-83), Schwerdtfeger moved to Dundas County, Upper Canada in 1791. He settled in Williamsburg Township and became pastor of a congregation of German settlers that had been established in 1784. By the end of the 18th century, Schwerdtfeger had organized Lutheran congregations in several neighbouring townships. He died in 1803 and was buried in the St. John’s Lutheran Church cemetery in Riverside Heights, near Williamsburg.

  • 33 Rev. John Bethune

    Bethune emigrated from a Scotland to North Carolina in 1773 and fought for the British during the American Revolution. Stationed at Halifax and Montreal near the end of the war, he eventually settled in what is now Glengarry County with his wife, Veronique Waddens. Bethune became the first Presbyterian minister in Upper Canada, founder of the first Presbyterian congregation of St. Andrew’s in Williamstown, and was responsible for the church’s construction in 1812.

  • 34 Rev. John Langhorn

    Born in Wales, John Langhorn (1744-1817) was an Anglican minister who served parishes in western Quebec (present-day Ontario). In 1787, he was appointed resident missionary to Loyalist settlements by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Langhorn’s territory comprised Ernestown and Fredericksburg, which had been settled in 1784 by disbanded soldiers of the King's Royal Regiment of New York. The two townships contained a large majority of Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists, and Langhorn often faced hostility from other denominations. Langhorn was the first resident Anglican clergyman in the Bay of Quinte region. He travelled throughout the area, calling at various preaching stations he had established. Langhorn was largely responsible for the erection of St. Paul's Church at Sandhurst in 1791, St. Warburg's in Fredericksburg in 1792 and the second St. John's at Bath in 1793-95. The continuous travel Langhorn undertook throughout Upper Canada was a strain on his health, and he returned to England in 1813.

  • 35 Rev. John Stuart

    Born in Pennsylvania, John Stuart (1740-1811) was an Anglican missionary at Cataraqui (Kingston). In 1770, Stuart was ordained and sent to Fort Hunter, New York, as missionary to the Mohawk residents of the Fort. After refusing to sign the oath of allegiance to the Continental Congress during the American Revolution (1775-83), Stuart escaped to Canada with his family in 1781. They eventually settled at Cataraqui in 1785, and Stuart became the first resident Anglican clergyman in Upper Canada (Ontario). He ministered to European settlers and First Nations communities in the Cataraqui area, and visited as far west as Niagara and the Grand River. Stuart was responsible for the building of Cataraqui's earliest church, St. George's Anglican Church, where in 1792 the new lieutenant-governor of the province of Upper Canada – John Graves Simcoe (1752-1806) – took his oath of office. Stuart died in 1811 after his eldest son George succeeded him as rector of Cataraqui.

  • 36 Rev. Peter Jones (Kahkewaquonaby)

    Methodist minister Peter Jones (1802-56) – called Kahkewaquonaby in Ojibwa – was the son of surveyor Augustus Jones and Tuhbenahneequay, the daughter of a Mississauga chief. Jones’ early years were spent with his mother’s Mississauga community at Burlington Heights. When he was 14, Jones was sent by his father to an English school in Saltfleet Township (Stoney Creek). Jones converted to Methodism in 1821 and began to preach in the Grand River area. In 1826, he moved to the Mississauga settlement on the Credit River, and was elected chief in 1829. Jones made several journeys to England to raise funds for the Credit River mission, where he was introduced to both King William IV (1765-1837) and Queen Victoria (1819-1901). He petitioned Queen Victoria for titles to the land occupied by the Mississauga along the Credit, but these were later withheld by the Indian Department in Upper Canada. Jones later facilitated the band’s relocation to New Credit (Brantford), where the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation exist to this day. Jones died at his home, Echo Villa, in Brantford in 1856.

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  • 37 Rev. Philip James

    Philip James (1800-51) was a Methodist minister born in Cornwall, England, who served as a missionary throughout Upper Canada (Ontario). In 1820, James was converted to the Methodist Bible Christian Church in Cornwall and served as an itinerant minister until being sent as a missionary to Prince Edward Island in 1834. He spent seven years preaching across the island to isolated communities, until he left in 1841 to serve the growing number of Bible Christian immigrants in Upper Canada. After serving in Cobourg, Darlington and Whitby, he travelled in 1846 to the Canada Company’s Huron Tract on the southeast shore of Lake Huron to minister to Bible Christians in Mitchell (Perth County). In 1850, despite his declining health, James left the Huron Tract mission and began preaching in Pickering, where he died in 1851.

  • 38 Rev. Richard Baxter

    Born in Carlisle, England, Jesuit priest Richard Baxter (1821-1904) emigrated to Canada in 1830. He studied at the Saint-Sulpice Seminary in Montreal and at St. Francis Xavier College in New York City, where he was ordained in 1854. After serving at various missions in the United States and Canada, Baxter was sent to Fort William (Thunder Bay) in 1872 to assist Father Dominique du Ranquet (1813-1900) at the Mission of the Immaculate Conception on the Kaministiquia River. Baxter travelled along the Dawson Road and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), establishing churches at Fort William, White River and Schreiber. He also visited isolated mining communities at Silver Islet, Isle Royale (Michigan), Silver Harbour and Vert Island to give sermons and visit Catholic settlers. In 1877-78, he was a frequent correspondent to the Thunder Bay Sentinel on the progress of CPR construction. Baxter died on May 8, 1904, in Montreal.

  • 39 Rev. Robert James McDowall

    Born in New York State, Robert James McDowall (1768-1841) graduated from the Union Theological Seminary, Schenectady and was ordained by the Dutch Reformed Church at Albany in 1797. McDowall was then sent to Lennox and Addington Counties in Upper Canada (Ontario) as a missionary to Presbyterian settlers in the Bay of Quinte area. Although area residents had requested a minister from both the Church of Scotland and the Associated Reformed Church in the United States, only the Dutch Reformed Church had preachers available for missionary work. McDowall organized congregations in Ernesttown and Adolphustown Townships and in Fredericksburg Township, where he settled in 1800. Although McDowall attempted to unite the Bay of Quinte congregations into a Presbytery of the Canadas, he was only somewhat successful and became the first Moderator of the newly-formed Synod of the Canadas in 1820. McDowall died in 1841 and was buried in the cemetery of the first church he established in Upper Canada – at Sandhurst in Fredericksburgh Township.

  • 40 Rev. Silas Huntington

    Methodist missionary Silas Huntington (1829-1905) was born in Kemptville, Upper Canada (Ontario). Ordained in 1854, Huntington served various congregations in Canada West (Ontario) and Canada East (Quebec) until 1882, when he was posted to Mattawa. Using this mission as a base, Huntington travelled extensively, visiting settlements along the Canadian Pacific Railway as far west as Schreiber, near Port Arthur (Thunder Bay). Reportedly the first Protestant missionary to reach many northern communities, Huntington is credited with preaching the first Protestant sermons in Mattawa, North Bay, Sturgeon Falls and Sudbury. He also helped found the Nipissing Masonic Lodge in 1886, establishing Freemasonry in northern Ontario. In 1905, at the age of 76, he took charge of Widdifield Mission near North Bay, but died later that year of typhoid fever. He was immensely popular and respected throughout the North. In 1960, Huntington University – now Huntington College in Laurentian University Sudbury – was named in his honour.

  • 41 Rev. Thomas Greene

    Rev. Thomas Greene (1809-78) came to Canada from Ireland in 1836 through the Upper Canadian Travelling Mission Fund. The fund was established by Bishop Charles J. Stewart (1775-1837) of Quebec to ensure Anglican missionary presence in Upper Canada (Ontario). Arriving at Quebec City in 1836, Greene was assigned as a missionary to the London District of Upper Canada. Greene travelled constantly to nearby communities, and his letters and journals provide invaluable information on life among the early settlers in the London area. In 1838, Greene became the first rector of St. Luke's Church in Burlington, perhaps due to the increasing cost of missionary travel after the Mission Fund was discontinued following Bishop Stewart’s death in 1837. During his rectorship at St. Luke's (1838-78), Greene and his family contributed substantially to that parish; Greene is buried in the church cemetery.

  • 42 Rev. William Bell

    One of the most influential Presbyterian clergymen in Upper Canada, William Bell (1780-1857) was born in Strathclyde, Scotland. In 1808, he entered the Congregational Church’s Hoxton Academy in London to train as a minister, and was ordained by the Associate Presbytery of Edinburgh in 1817. Bell worked as an itinerant preacher until he was offered a salary and land grant to minister to the Scottish military settlement at Perth in Upper Canada (Ontario). Bell and his family arrived in Perth in June 1817, where he turned his energy towards organizing a congregation, founding a school, conducting pastoral visits and establishing a church. One of only nine Presbyterian ministers in Upper Canada, Bell encouraged the others to organize a presbytery in Canada, eventually forming the United Synod of Upper Canada in 1831. Bell and his congregation left the United Synod in 1835 over complications from the merger and a government grant dispute. Shortly before his death in 1857, however, Bell was able to reunite the divided groups of Presbyterians in Perth.

  • 43 Rev. William King

    William King, born in Northern Ireland, immigrated first to Ohio in 1833, then Louisiana where he married and became a slave-owner. With a change of belief and a rejection of slavery, King returned to Edinburgh in 1843 to study theology. In 1848, King went to Canada West (now Ontario) as a preacher with the Free Church of Scotland. With assistance from the Synod of the Presbyterian Church of Canada, King established a 9,000-acre (3,642-hectare) Black settlement in Raleigh Township to provide freedom, land, education and Christianity. The community would be administered by the Elgin Association; the Presbyterian Church supported a mission, religion and education. By 1853, the settlement – known both as Elgin and Buxton – contained 130 families. King’s efforts brought him international acclaim and focused attention on the Abolition Movement in British North America.

  • 44 Rev. William Macaulay

    Anglican minister William Macaulay (1794-1874) was instrumental to the organization of Anglican congregations in Prince Edward County and the founding of the community of Picton in Upper Canada (Ontario). Following the American Revolution (1775-83), Macaulay’s family emigrated from America to the Loyalist settlement at Cataraqui (Kingston). Macaulay, the son of a United Empire Loyalist, received a Crown grant of 400 acres near Hallowell. Educated at Oxford (England) and ordained in 1818, Macaulay returned to Upper Canada to serve as minister in Hamilton Township (Cobourg). He then turned his attention to the small settlement growing near his land grant in Prince Edward County. In 1823, he established an Anglican congregation in the area and donated land for the district court house and jail. Through Macaulay’s influence, the settlement was named Picton, after Sir Thomas Picton (1758-1815), a distinguished British soldier, and was incorporated with the adjacent community of Hallowell in 1837.

  • 45 Rev. William Proudfoot

    Presbyterian minister and educator William Proudfoot (1788-1851) was born near Peebles, Scotland. Ordained in 1813, he served as a priest and teacher in Scotland. In 1832, Proudfoot applied for a missionary posting in Canada, and moved to a farm near London, Upper Canada (Ontario). In 1834, he founded the Missionary Presbytery of the Canadas in connection with the United Associate Synod of the Secession Church in Scotland. In 1844, he opened a divinity school in London to train Canadian clergy. Proudfoot also helped create new congregations and founded the Presbyterian Magazine. Despite his fears that the values of the Missionary Presbytery would be compromised by a merger, in 1847 it was joined with the newly formed United Presbyterian Church in Canada. The London seminary was moved to Toronto in 1850, and Proudfoot travelled there regularly to teach while retaining his congregation in London. He died in Toronto in January 1851.

  • 46 Richard Randolph Disney

    Born in Maryland, Richard Randolph Disney (1830-91) helped to establish the British Methodist Episcopal (BME) Church in Canada. Disney attended a seminary in Massachusetts and was licensed to preach in 1857 by the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. That year, he emigrated to Canada West (Ontario) to serve as a minister for African-American settlers who had fled from slavery in the United States. Disney supported the formation of a separate BME Church in 1856 in Canada West. He served as the BME Church General Secretary, and was elected BME Church Bishop of Ontario, Nova Scotia, Bermuda, the West Indies and British Guiana (Guyana) in 1875. By 1880, however, it became evident that the church could not support its missions in the Caribbean. The BME Church re-joined the AME Church in 1881, although several congregations rejected the reunion, re-formed the BME Church and expelled Disney as Bishop. He continued to serve the remaining AME Church congregations in Ontario until he was assigned to congregations in Arkansas and Mississippi in 1888.

  • 47 The Cowley Fathers at Bracebridge

    The Society of Saint John the Evangelist, commonly called the Cowley Fathers, is a religious community within the Anglican Church. Founded in 1866 in Cowley, England, the Society began its ministry in Canada in 1927 when Rev. Roland Ford Palmer (1891-1985) and two other Cowley Fathers arrived in Emsdale to take charge of the scattered Anglican missions in the Diocese of Algoma. In 1928, the Society established a chapel and monastery in Bracebridge. The Cowley Fathers held "Sunshine Sales" of food, clothing and household goods, ran programs in agricultural management and weaving, and established credit unions. Their activities peaked in the 1960s. Thereafter, the Cowley Fathers at Bracebridge underwent a steady decline. Improved roads meant that rural parishioners could drive into Bracebridge to attend church, while government hospitals and the introduction of medical insurance reduced the need for the Cowley Fathers' community work. By 1983, the Fathers had left the Diocese of Algoma, and later formed the North American Congregation of the Society of Saint John the Evangelist.

  • 48 William Jenkins

    Born in Kirriemuir, Scotland, William Jenkins (1779-1843) was a Presbyterian clergyman in Markham Township, Upper Canada (Ontario). Jenkins was educated in Scotland in theology, Greek, Hebrew and learned several First Nations languages while studying in America. He emigrated to Upper Canada in 1817. Jenkins established a congregation at Mount Pleasant (in present-day Richmond Hill), which joined the newly formed Presbytery of the Canadas in 1819. He travelled extensively as a missionary, visiting Peterborough, the Bay of Quinte and the Grand River areas. Along with Robert Baldwin (1804-58) and Egerton Ryerson (1803-82), Jenkins founded the Friends of Religious Liberty committee, which petitioned the British government in 1831 for the removal of clergymen from political office, the secularization of the Clergy Reserves, as well as equal rights for clergy of all denominations.

  • 49 William McMaster

    Born in County Tyrone, Ireland, William McMaster (1811-87) was a wholesaler, banker and senator in Ontario, and established McMaster University. In 1833, McMaster emigrated to Upper Canada (Ontario) to work as a clerk in a wholesale firm, which he later took over and successfully managed. McMaster had no children, although he was close with his nephews from Ireland, whom he brought to work at the firm – named William McMaster and Nephews. McMaster was elected as Liberal representative in the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada in 1862, and became a senator of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. McMaster’s banking success also enabled him to contribute to educational institutions in Ontario, both secular and theological. A firm believer in the value of education, McMaster financially supported several instructional institutions, including the Toronto Mechanics’ Institute. He founded the Canadian Literary Institute (Woodstock College) as a training site for Baptist preachers, and the Toronto Baptist College in 1881. Dissatisfied with the proposed federation of local colleges with the University of Toronto, the Toronto Baptist College and Canadian Literary Institute were joined to form McMaster University in 1887.

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